Background information


Acknowledgements and References

Asteroids
16  Psyche
32  Pomona
34  Circe
47  Aglaja
52  Europa
55  Pandora
66  Maja
102 Miriam
110 Lydia
122 Gerda
153 Hilda
275 Sapientia
279 Thule
607 Jenny


============================================================================

Asteroid        Plate      Date      Time    RA____2000____DEC      RA____1950_____DEC

110  Lydia        O-31     21/12/1949  20:21    03 54 13  +22 26 40   03 51 15  +22 17 50
Field


110  Lydia      O-1337  02/23/1955  20:16   07 09 16  +29 39 06   07 06 06  +29 43 58
Field


110  Lydia        O-1595  04/08/1956  22:41   13 12 40   -01 25 30   13 10 06   -01 09 35
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe357   1949-12-22 05:07:16  03 54 11.86  +22 26 37.8  04 02 40.74 +24 24 31.3 11.90
xe308   1955-02-23 05:12:14  07 09 30.47  +29 40 04.9  07 05 13.15 +29 47 20.4 12.50
xe617   1956-04-09 06:56:57  13 12 39.62  -01 25 29.6  13 19 26.07 -00 45 49.2 11.70


============================================================================

Asteroid        Plate      Date      Time    RA____2000____DEC      RA____1950_____DEC


153 Hilda       O-1494   11/23/1955 02:22   06 13 45  +17 26 20  06 10 50  +17 27 14   
Field

SkyMorph Results

xe420 1955-11-11 11:47:23  06 19 07.71  +17 45 14.2  06 32 27.92  +17 54 02.9  14.20
xe419 1955-11-24 02:22:12  06 13 54.92  +17 26 44.6  06 08 28.55  +17 59 06.3  14.09

Note date discrepancy Skymorph: xe419 and  Fourmilab 


===========================================================================


122 Gerda     O-1300   12/20/1954  19:29   2 38 32   +13 40 16    2 35 48   +13 27 21   
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe470 1954-12-21 03:27:25  02 38 32.24  +13 40 14.8 02 31 51.10  +12 38 41.7  13.20

Discrepency: according to http://asteroid.lowell.edu/cgi-bin/koehn/astfinder
122 Gerda also on O-811 at 22 45 12.15  -07 07 21 (plate center 22h 55.508m/-5 13.598m
Image from NOFS

gif   001 POSSI  0702      811 1953.6797 07.03 5.990479 -0.095882 5.998622 -0.092529
gif   002 POSSI  0702      811 1953.6797 07.87 5.990479 -0.095882 5.998622 -0.092529 103aO None 


==========================================================================

607 Jenny       O-470      1/31/1952  00:49    9 59 59  +02 01 32   09 57 23  +02 15 59
Use Aladin-click here
'Load' ->:  9 59 59  +02 01 32  -> 'Submit' -> "POSS1 E (Red) ~14.1x14.1
Field


607 Jenny       O-1455  10/22/1955  03:14   05 24 49  +31 33 14  05 21 35  +31 30 32   
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe609  1952-02-01 09:13:50  09 59 59.20  +02 01 35.2  10 07 25.06  -00 42 20.1  13.50
xe304  1955-10-23 11:10:60  05 24 49.06  +31 33 05.8  05 21 11.85  +30 03 04.6  14.55


========================================================================

275 Sapientia  O-417    11/7/1951   02:49    07 09 52  +17 50 8  (7 3 58 17 55 59)

From 

SkyMorph results
xe421 1951-11-08 11:04:30  07 10 11.16  +17 48 45.2  06 56 26.63  +17 49 03.5 13.39

Plate not returned by NOFS, NOFS returns following for that RA/DEC:
      No. Survey Field Plate   Date      Time  RA (B1950)     DEC RA  (J2000)    DEC Type  Filt    Exp H.A.   dbID   Nimg
jpg   001 POSSI  0423      641 1953.0226 06.67 1.909027  0.311149 1.918136  0.309973 103aE RP2444   40 1:09E  se0423 0002
jpg   002 POSSI  0423      641 1953.0226 06.45 1.909027  0.311149 1.918136  0.309973 103aO None     10 1:25E  so0423 0004

NOFS Plate date for Plate 417:
0422                       417 1951.8508 10.82 1.804380  0.312094 1.813526  0.311269 103aE RP2444   50 0:45E  


=======================================================================

 279 Thule      O-976   1954-Feb-09 01:41 Not Found Aladin 10 43 02.37 +11 19 11.4
Use DSS Plate Finder - click here
RA = 10 42 54     DEC =11 20 00
Select plate tagged as:    POSS-E Red Plate  xx103aE + plexi  (POSS-I E)   45.0    XE491  (08WO) 1954.111
or  www.nofs.navy.mil
Use NOFS - click here
RA = 10 42 54     DEC =11 20 00
Check 'Images', Uncheck 'Finder Charts'
'Retrieve Data'
When processing done, click  the first selection returned(wait, it will be there!): "jpg   003 POSSI  0492      976 "


SkyMorph Results

xe469 1950-08-14 11:12:53  01 55 47.37  +09 28 48.9  02 07 47.47  +12 41 31.9  15.35
xe491 1954-02-10 10:15:46  10 43 00.67  +11 19 22.2  10 55 37.32  +11 13 41.4  14.71


======================================================================


55 Pandora   O-222    12/08/1950  19:50  02 52 53   +25 26 07   02 49 58  +25 13 54
Field

   55 Pandora   O-1171  08/07/1954  23:47  22 27 04    -19 03 38 


SkyMorph Results

xe354  1950-12-09 03:48:20  02 52 54.23  +25 26 06.4  02 44 21.95  +24 37 04.8  11.40

Discrepency: according to http://asteroid.lowell.edu/cgi-bin/koehn/astfinder
55 Pandora also on O-1171 at 22 27  3.593  -19  3 38.17  (plate center 22h 31.827m/-17 15.222m) 
Image from NOFS



=====================================================================


16 Psyche     O-1481   11/18/1955  00:01  04 57 05  +17 50 14   04 54 10  +17 45 41
Field


16 Psyche     O-1501  12/10/1955  23:15   04 37 21  +17 17 24   04 34 27 17 11 19
Field

  16 Psyche     O-1150   7/28/1954   23:17    20 50 34  -15 46 17 Where to find plate O-1150


SkyMorph Results

xe416 1955-11-19 07:59:34  04 57 05.33  +17 50 13.0  04 56 26.28  +18 14 07.1  9.60
xe415 1955-12-11 07:08:02  04 37 22.02  +17 17 20.4  04 32 24.15  +18 18 53.3  9.51

Discrepency: according to http://asteroid.lowell.edu/cgi-bin/koehn/astfinder
16 Psyche also on O-1150 at 20 50 34  -15 46 16  (plate center 20h 56.166m -17 26.729m ) 
Image from NOFS



=====================================================================

  34 Circe        O-1282   11/23/1954  21:18   2 19 35   +08 24 24    2 16 55   +08 10 38
Use Aladin
Use Aladin - click here
'Load' ->:  2 19 35  +08 24 24  -> 'Submit' -> "POSS1 E (Red) ~14.1x14.1
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe529 1954-11-24 05:34:41 02 19 35.35  +08 24 23.1  02 07 36.73 +06 41 32.5  12.60


====================================================================

   32 Pomona   O-855    10/10/1953  18:54  20 39 40    -11 41 07

   32 Pomona   O-791    08/14/1953  23:18  20 54 03    -08 22 36
Use NOFS - click here 
RA = 20 54 03     DEC = -08 22 36
Check 'Images', Uncheck 'Finder Charts'
'Retrieve Data'
When processing done, click  the first selection returned(wait, it will be there!): "jpg   003 POSSI  0758      791 "
and "jpg   004 POSSI  0758      791"


SkyMorph Results

Obs.
ID           Time              Predicted Object         Observation Center      Mag.
                                 Position 
xe414 1950-12-09 05:56:40  04 11 02.29  +17 04 14.6  04 08 21.36  +18 23 27.0  11.30
xe470 1954-12-21 03:27:25  02 48 05.08  +13 47 15.9  02 31 51.10  +12 38 41.7  12.00

Discrepency: according to http://asteroid.lowell.edu/cgi-bin/koehn/astfinder
32 Pomona also on O-855 at 20 39 40  -11 41 07  (plate center 20h 31.959m/-11 30.548m) 
Image from NOFS
32 Pomona also on O-791 at 20 54 03  -08 22 36  (plate center 20h 55.910m/-11 26.757m) 
Image from NOFS



====================================================================



102 Miriam      O-1460  10/24/1955  00:13  03 26 06   +16 48 47   03 23 17   +16 38 22
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe421 1951-11-08 11:04:30  07 03 29.65 +17 00 36.8  06 56 26.63 +17 49 03.5  13.51
xe481 1951-11-28 09:04:05  06 57 34.79 +16 10 15.4  06 56 05.44 +11 49 05.7  13.09
xe551 1953-04-15 05:33:06  10 57 52.27 +02 18 15.8  10 55 31.23 +05 13 41.6  14.50
xe412 1955-10-25 09:09:53  03 26 05.08 +16 48 36.5  03 20 13.92 +18 31 45.6  11.80



====================================================================


52 Europa      O-1283  11/23/1954  22:25   02 26 57   +03 07 11   02 24 21  +02 53 45
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe590 1954-11-24 06:38:51  02 26 57.52 +03 07 12.3 02 31 26.30 +00 38 43.3  10.70



===================================================================


47 Aglaja    O-722     4/14/1953   21:26  11 07 10   +06 34 21  11 04 34  +06 50 34
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe551 1953-04-15 05:33:06 11 07 09.97 +06 34 18.5 10 55 31.23 +05 13 41.6 12.80


===================================================================


66 Maja     O-1337    2/23/1955   20:16  07 01 16  +26 45 35
Field


SkyMorph Results

xe308 1955-02-23 05:12:14 07 01 15.04  +26 46 51.5  07 05 13.15 +29 47 20.4 13.30


===========================================
References and Acknowledgements

US Naval Observatory
   This research has made use of the USNOFS Image and Catalogue Archive
   operated by the United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station
   (http://www.nofs.navy.mil/data/fchpix/).

Skymorph:

Horizons:
Giorgini, J.D., Yeomans, D.K., Chamberlin, A.B., Chodas, P.W., Jacobson, R.A., Keesey, M.S., Lieske, J.H.,
     Ostro, S.J., Standish, E.M., Wimberly, R.N., "JPL's On-Line Solar System Data Service", Bulletin of the American
     Astronomical Society 28(3), 1158, 1996. 

List of POSS plates





The asteroids presented here had positions on the POSS 1 plates calculated by myself as
an undergrad in astronomy at Penn State in 1978-1979.

I had a great faculty advisor, Dr Peter U., that was willing to allow me to
conduct research of my own choosing for independent studies credits in astro.

I was doing a minor in CompSci and became enamored with the use of computers to solve
number crunching problems in astro.

I dug around a bit and learned the department also had copies of the POSS on site
and thought Hmmm, orbital elements and a history of the sky spread over years.

At the time the computing facilites at PSU had an IBM 3033 mainframeand I as an undergrad had
access to card punch machines.

I started tearing thru all the books I could about the intgrals used in position
calculations of bodies from orbital elemments and pertubations.

Next came determinations of the POSS plate ID's and centers that encompassed some number
of degrees centered around the ecliptic.

Dr U. made initial contact with Brian M. inquiring about the
availability of publications containing orbital elements of minor planets. Dr M.
was able to provide an issue of
Ephemerides of Minor Planets published in the then USSR.

The next step was examining the the first few hundred asteroids for those with high
brightness.

This was followed by the scouring of algorithms that would provide at least some level
going 'extreme' distances back in time.

The Runga Kutta 4'th order was used to generate initial conditions for the
 Adams Bashforth/Mou 4'th order predictor corrector continuation.

All calculations were run as N-body with simultaneous integrations of the
planets used as pertubation forces.

What came out of it was a Fortran program and datasets of POSS positions/times
and asteroids with orbital elements.

All on punched cards at the mercy of the computer operators 
("Time and/or Records Equaled or Exceeded" when a card fell out of a deck)

An average run was to provide enough asteroid elements to not use up the
20 minutes of computer time per run on the mainframe followed by plate searching with a magnifier.

Gene




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